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 Western knowledge and false Toponymies

  The opinions expressed in this commentary are solely those of the author


Western knowledge and false Toponymies  25.7.2012  
By Hamiit Qliji Berai

By Hamiit Qliji Berai, an independent researcher who has spent the majority of his life researching the ancient Near East.  Read more by the Author
July 25, 2012

Romans, Western Christians - and Muslims authorities bestowed their own false toponymies upon the indigenous Kurdish names of the cities that they had conquered.

During the consciously preparation of the new world from 1630, that was continued and partly practiced in the WWI and WWII.

So was the well-known ancient name Ápú, Abú “Patriarch Divinity” name of the Kurdish historical holy city which is allocated to the contemporary state Syria has been replaced with the Aleppo and Halab (see Bible Discovered pg. 135).

The contemporary Syria, Lebanon and the Syrian capital Damascus were bestowed upon its well-known ancient name Šám, which related to the holy biblical Šáma, the Šám son of Noah and identical to the ancient state Šám, Šum, dedicated to the eponymous ancestor Šum of Noah. In the translation of various archaeological sources the Kurdish name Šám or Šum has been wiped away (see Bible Discovered, Pg. 71, 115-123).

Osrhoene, Edessa, Antioch and Turkish Urfa were bestowed upon the Kurdish Holy name Ura, Ŕuhá and Nisibis (Nusaybin) upon the Island Botánia, better known as the Jzira Botán. The city Ura also called Ŕuhá in West Kurdsu is the birthplace of Abraham, according to the Kurdish tradition and Bible (Gen. 10:10).

Agreeing to Pliny, v. 86, the city was called Antioch in the Seleucids era (312-63 BC); Ura received new name like other cities conquered by Seleucids. On coins of Antiochus Epiphanes (died 163 BC) it is called ‘Antioch by the Callirhoe’; and the city received under, according to tradition, Seleucus Nicator the name of Edessa.

From the contemporary interpretation concerning Ura (Edessa); appears that Kurdsu on the dissolution of Seleucid Empire, was divided between Rome and Bardia/Parthia; afterwards between Rome and Ezidian-Šádánian Kurdish Empire1 (see below).

Edessa (Ura) was capital city of Osrhoene or Osroene (ca. 127 BC- 244 AD), one of several federations arising from the dissolution of the Seleucid Empire. At this time Osrhoene federation was within Parthian territory.

The name Osrhoene or Osroene obviously is a corruption, because of its uncommon word form of an untranslatable nature and its contradictory tales like Osroene, or Edessa, after acquired independence from the collapsing Seleucid Empire through a dynasty of the nomadic Arab tribe called Orrhoei from 136 BC. The name Osroene is derived from Osroes of Orhai, an Arab sheik who in 120 BC wrested control of this region from the Seleucids in Syria (C. Anthon, pg.681). Or A nomadic Arab tribe called Orrhoei occupied Edessa about 130 B.C. Orrhoei founded a small state ruled by their chieftains with the title of kings and the district was called after them Orrhoene. This name eventually changed into Osroene, in assimilation to the Parthian name Osroes or Chosroes (Xasrau) Osroene, (1911 Edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica; Pliny vol. 85 vi. 25, 117, 129). And This kingdom was established by The Nabataeans or Arab tribes from North Arabia, and lasted nearly four centuries (c.132 BC to 214), (New International Encyclopedia).

Orrhoei or Orhai is clearly a wrong articulation of Uri, Urai, which mean “related to Ur, the Kurdish ancient name of Edessa, the issued capital city”. Why and how a nomadic Arab tribe established Osroene kingdom middle of Kurdish territory, faraway from Arabia and Arabs territory is not clear and there is also no historical background for such false information. We know that present Iraq, Syria, Lebanon and Palestine are occupied after the Muslim conquest and later Arabized.

The independence of the Ura-federation ended in 244 when it was incorporated in the Roman Empire. Abga was the first Christian king in history and Ura-federation was the first state to have a Christian king. He was converted to Christianity by Addai, one of the Seventy-two Disciples.

Apparently afterward Ura became a center of Kurdish national reaction against Rome’s dominance. According to Catholic Encyclopedia Bardaisan’s royal friend Abgar (Abga) became the first Christian king; and both king and philosopher (Bardaisan) laboured to create the first Christian State. Bardaisan showed great literary activity against Marcion and Valentinus, the Gnostics of the day.

The Romans under Caracalla, taking advantage of the anti-Christian faction in Edessa, captured Abga IX and sent him in chains to Rome. Bardaisan at the age of sixty-three was forced to take refuge in the fortress of Ani in Armenia. Segal (1970, pp.31) wrote, in the struggle between Rome and Parthia for authority over Mesopotamia, Edessa was usually on the side of the latter. Seen from Rome, Abgar of Edessa was a Parthian, and this notion continued well into Byzantine times when even Syriac poets describe Edessa as 'Parthian' or 'daughter of the Parthians', (Bible Discovered pg. 78-85).

Despite the fact that the invaders have applied their greedy names to this city, the Kurds however retained its (own) indigenous names Ura and Ruhá; although the scholars ridiculously still ignore existence of the Kurds and Kurdish, the native language of the local people.

The translation of the Hebrew Bible and the Aramaic Bible should be approach from the Kurdish prespective; Aramaic relating to the Árám fifth son of Šáma (the Šám, eldest or second son of Nah (Noah).

1. Bardia or Parthia were the Xorásáni-Kurds Empire c. 250 BC- 224 AD) and after the overthrowing of the Xorásáni-Kurds Empire by the Ezidi-Šádánian (the corrupted Sasanian, 224-651 AD), between Rome and Ezidian-Šádánian Kurdish Empire In 608 AD Ura-federation was taken by the Ezidi-Šádánid Xasrau II.

Hamíit Qliji Bérai is an independent researcher who has spent the majority of his life researching the ancient Near East. He researches continuously since 1994 archaeological sources for early culture, history and ethnography of the mankind in ancient Near East, all over the world in different universities including the University of Leiden Netherlands, the University of Oxford, the University of Cambridge, the University of Chicago, British Museum, London University and the British Library in London. Those are texts from ca. 4000 BC, traces of human civilization and objects from millions years ago, excavated in the Kurdish regions. He takes a different approach, a multidisciplinary scientific approach from the perspective Kurdish oral traditions consist of myriad languages, literature, names etc of the sites where the ancient sources come from. His research has led to an adequate understanding of the ancient sources, which shows the world of the ancient Near East in a completely different way than some know it to be now. Institute Elamirkan

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  The opinions expressed in this commentary are solely those of the author


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